Kidney stones are little crystals developed in the kidneys that travel through the urinary tract into the bladder causing extreme pain. Side effects of a kidney stone can include nausea and vomiting as well as added kidney pressure depending on the size and length of time it stays within the body blocking the flow of urine. Kidney stones also occur in a rare inherited disorder called cytinuria, in which too much of an amino acid called cystine builds up in the urine and forms stones. Kidney stones are crystalline deposits of various chemicals that should normally be excreted in the urine, particularly oxalate. Common in food, it is usually disposed of by the gut into the faeces by exchanging it for chloride.
Kidney stones form when a change occurs in the normal balance of water, salts, minerals, and other things found in urine. The most common cause of kidney stones is not drinking enough water. Kidney stones are usually asymptomatic until they obstruct the flow of urine. Symptoms can include acute flank pain (renal colic), nausea and vomiting, restlessness, dull pain, hematuria, and possibly fever if infection is present. Kidney stones may not produce symptoms until they begin to move down the ureter, causing pain. The pain is usually severe and often starts in the flank region, then moves down to the groin.
Kidney stones can also result from infection in the urinary tract ; these are known as struvite or infection stones. Kidney stones are abnormal, hard, chemical deposits that form inside the kidneys. This condition also is called nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis. Kidney stones affect 12% of the American population. Calcium oxalate stones account for 90% of kidney stone incidence.
Calcium, which is a major component of many types of kidney stones, will be more likely to stay in solution if the urine is dilute and come out of solution if the urine is concentrated. Keeping the calcium in solution reduces the tendency to form stones. Calcium and magnesium are not especially bad for >health, and in fact are the ions that make mineral waters taste good. In such cases, drinking softened >water is actually worse than drinking the incoming hard water. Calcium combines with oxalate in the intestines. This reduces calcium’s ability to be absorbed.
Calcium Stones: people who form this type of stone either have too much of one type of three chemicals in their urine, or not enough of another. In particular, they have either too much calcium, oxalate, or urate in their urine, or too little citrate.